Glaucoma is a common cause of irreversible blindness in the developed world. Management includes medical, laser and surgical treatment options. Regardless of whether the presenting IOP is high or within the normal range, IOP lowering is the only treatment option at the present time. Having said this however, there is growing evidence for IOP independent neuroprotection, but this lies outside the remit of this paper. First-line treatment usually involves topical therapies, whilst surgery is usually reserved for patients who have failed to respond or are intolerant of medical and or laser therapies. There are many different types of topical agents available, and this article aims to describe the mode of action, side effects and effectiveness of the different types of topical medications. In addition, it briefly looks at various types of laser therapies and surgical procedures used to manage glaucoma, as well as discussion on when to start treatment and how to monitor patients with glaucoma.
Keywords: glaucoma, primary angle glaucoma, medical treatment, laser treatment, trabeculectomy, laser iridotom